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About H2S

Roles of H2S in Microvascular Functions

There is already extensive knowledge of the role of H2S as an endogenously-produced signaling molecule and its beneficial endothelial functions [6,7]. It is synthesized by the action of the cysthathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enzyme [8-10], and its physiological benefits include regulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, vasodilation, cytoprotection, modulation of cell death and apoptosis [11-13]. Significant evidence from animal and human subject studies links reduced levels of H2S to diabetes [11], resulting in diminished vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) among other factors critical to angiogenesis and tissue regeneration [14]. Systemic restoration of H2S levels demonstrate marked improvement in VEGF expression, increased levels of tissue granulation and faster healing [15].

Potential of H2S in Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics

H2S deficiency and imbalance has been linked to many diseases including cardiovascular problems [16]. Researchers around the world have identified many potential targets for H2S therapy such as for peripheral artery disease and microvascular disorder, chronic limb threatening ischemia or CLTI, etc. [17-20].

Learn More About H2S

1. S. Virani, A. Alonso, E. Benjamin, M. Bittencourt, C. Callaway, A. Carson and e. al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 141, no. 9, pp. e139-e596, 2020. Read Here

    2. CDC, “Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD),” 8 September 2020. [Online] Read Here

    3. A. C. Salisbury and D. J. Cohen, “Economic Analysis in Peripheral Artery Disease,” Endovascular Today, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 53-57, 2016. Read Here

      4. C. Walker, “THE SAGE GROUP Releases New Estimates for the United States Prevalence and Incidence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI),” Vascular Disease Management, 25 October 2016. [Online] Read Here [Accessed 15 February 2021].

        5. J. A. Barnes, M. A. Eid, M. A. Creager and P. P. Goodney, “Epidemiology and Risk of Amputation in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Artery Disease,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 40, pp. 1808-1817, 2020. Read Here

          6. H. Kimura, “Production and physiological effects of hydrogen sulfide,” Antioxid Redox Signal, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 783-793, 2014. Read Here

            7. R. Wang, “Physiological implications of hydrogen sulfide: a whiff exploration that blossomed,” Physiol Rev, vol. 92, pp. 791-896, 2012. Read Here

              8. L. Li, P. Rose and P. K. Moore, “Hydrogen sulfide and cell signaling,” Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol , vol. 51, pp. 169-187, 2011. Read Here

                9. A. K. Mustafa, M. M. Gadalla and S. H. Snyder, “Signaling by Gasotransmitters,” Sci Signal , vol. 2, no. 68, p. re2, 2009. Read Here

                  10. J. Wallace and R. Wang, “Hydrogen sulfide-based therapeutics: exploiting a unique but ubiquitous gasotransmitter,” Nature Rev Drug Discov, vol. 14, pp. 329-345, 2015. Read Here

                    11. J. Candela, M. Baker and T. Koch, “Is Hydrogen Sulfide The Missing Link In Diabetic Wound Care?,” Podiatry Today, vol. 33, no. 8, 2020. [Online] Read Here

                      12. A. R. Jensen, N. A. Drucker, S. Khaneki, M. J. Ferkowicz, M. C. Yoder, E. R. DeLeon, K. R. Olson and T. A. Markel, “Hydrogen Sulfide: A Potential Novel Therapy for the Treatment of Ischemia,” Shock, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 511-524, 2017. Read Here

                        13. J. L. Wallace, G. P. Ferraz and M. N. Muscara, “Hydrogen Sulfide: An Endogenous Mediator of Resolution of Inflammation and Injury,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 58-67, 2012. Read Here

                          14. N. Kanagy, C. Szabo and A. Papapetropoulos, “Vascular Biology of Hydrogen Sulfide,” Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, vol. 312, p. C537–C549, 2017. Read Here

                            15. G. Wang, W. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Jiang, X. Lu and X. Zhao, “Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats,” Int J Clin Exp Pathol, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 5097-5104, 2015. Read Here

                              16. D. J. Lefer, “A new gaseous signaling molecule emerges: cardioprotective role of hydrogen sulfide,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007 Nov 13;104(46):17907-8. Read Here

                                17. B. L. Predmore, D. J. Lefer, and G. Gojon, “Hydrogen Sulfide in Biochemistry and Medicine,” Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Jul 1; 17(1): 119–140. Read Here

                                  18. Y. Han, Q. Shang, J. Yao, and Y. Ji, “Hydrogen sulfide: a gaseous signaling molecule modulates tissue homeostasis: implications in ophthalmic diseases,” Cell Death & Disease, 2019, V 10, No. 293. Read Here

                                    19. S. A. Coavoy-Sánchez, S. K. P. Costa, M. N. Muscará, “Hydrogen sulfide and dermatological diseases,” Br J Pharmacol, 2020 Feb;177(4):857-865. Read Here

                                      20. Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Tang, Z.g Ren, S.-L. Qu, M.-H. Liu, L.-S. Liu, Z.-S. Jiang, “Hydrogen Sulfide, the Next Potent Preventive and Therapeutic Agent in Aging and Age-Associated Diseases,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2013, Volume 33 Number 6, pp. 1104 –1113. Read Here

                                        Patents & Publications

                                        • Clark, RM, Kanagy NL, Shekarriz, A, Khotan, M, and Brooks BJ, 2021 Joint UNM-Exhalix IP, Invention Disclosure 2021-053 , “Local and regional delivery of sulfide to augment wound healing and angiogenesis.”
                                        • Kanagy NL et al., “Vascular Biology of Hydrogen Sulfide,” Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, vol. 312, p. C537–C549, 2017.
                                        • R. M. Clark, B. Coffman, P. G. McGuire and T. R. Howdieshell, “Myocutaneous revascularization following graded ischemia in lean and obese mice,” Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, vol. 9, pp. 325-336, 2016.
                                        • A. Shekarriz and D. M. Friedrichsen, “Transdermal Sampling Strip and Method for Analyzing Transdermally Emitted Gases”. Patent US Patent Number 10,856,790, 8 December 2020.
                                        • Shekarriz, D. M. Friedrichsen, B. Brooks, G. Silaski, L. Rios, E. Wiest and N. L. Kanagy, “Sensor of Transdermal Biomarkers for Blood Perfusion Monitoring,” Sensing and Bio-Sensing R., vol. 28, no. 100328, pp. 1-7, 2020.
                                        • L. Rios, D. M. Friedrichsen, G. Silaski, C. Mowry, R. Shekarriz and N. L. Kanagy, “Transdermal Detection of Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, April 2016.
                                        • E. Wies, D. M. Friedrichsen, G. Silaski, F. Qeadan, R. Shekarriz and N. L. Kanagy, “Transdermal Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in Humans,” in Experimental Biology, Orlando, Florida, 2019.